domingo, 17 de abril de 2011

Primary Elements in Andalusian Architecture (II): Qubba

Qubba is a cubic volume covered with a dome or vault. This roof can be simplified into a truncated octagonal pyramid carpentry, whose corners support four tubes or pendentives; or a hemiespheric shape carved in stone, brick or wood; or can be covered with a polygonal or star dome.

Qubba is a charismatic and protective space, which confers immortality to whom is under its dome. That's why it is used in funerary architecture, in special points into the mosque as maqsura, which is the nave initial section. Qubba also appears covering mihrabs in mosques.

It is also used in civil architecture as a hall of honor or ambassadors hall in a royal palace.

Qubba stone domes are generally used in mosques and also in Mudejar and Christian shrines. In contrast, wooden domes usually appears in Caliphate palaces, like Medina Azahara; this type continued in all Taifa period palaces, Almohad and Nasrid. But they are also usual in Mudejar architecture of Christian Middle Ages palaces.

Mosque of Cordoba (8th - 10th c.). Plan and Section of Maqsura.

Mosque of Cordoba (8th - 10th c.). Scheme of central vault in maqsura. 

Mosque of Cordoba (8th - 10th c.). Central vault in maqsura. 

Mosque of Cordoba (8th - 10th c.). Scheme of lateral vaults in maqsura.

Mosque of Cordoba (8th - 10th c.). Lateral vaults in maqsura.

Mosque of Cordoba (8th - 10th c.). Scheme of vault in Capilla de Villaviciosa.

Mosque of Cordoba (8th - 10th c.). Vault in Capilla de Villaviciosa. 

 Aljafería Palace, Zaragoza (1065-1081). Vault in the mosque.

Old Cathedral of Salamanca (12th - 13th c.). Vault in Capilla de Talavera (12 th c.). 

Church of Holy Sepulchre in Torres del Río, Navarra (12th c.). Crossing vault.

Great Mosque of Tremcen, Algeria (1082). Dome in Mirhab.

 Alhambra palace (14th c). Plan showing Dos Hermanas Room (orange) and Abencerrajes Room (yellow).

 Alhambra palace (14th c). Vault in Abencerrajes Room.

Alhambra palace (14th c). Vault in Dos Hermanas room.

Scheme of spanish framework, inspired in muslims qubbas.

 Church of Magdalena, Sevilla. Vault in Capilla de la Quinta Angustia (14th c.)

Church of Santa Marina, Sevilla (14th c.). Vault in Capilla de la Aurora (c. 1415).

Lecture by D. Rafael Manzano Martos on November 17, 2010 at the School of Architecture at the University of Notre Dame, USA.

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