martes, 12 de julio de 2011
Palladio in Spain (VII): Renewed Palladian interest in Spanish Illustration
With renewed British interest in Palladio in 18th century, new Palladian editions arrived in Spain: Pierre de Muet (1700); Giacomo Leoni (1716-1720), Isaac Ware (1738), Francesco and Girogio Muttoni Fosatti (1740 -1760) and Ottavio Bertotti Scamozzi (1776-1783). Palladian text began to be cited in new treaties, such as "Civil Architecture" (1750) by José de Hermosilla y Sandoval. A new Spanish edition was published in 1797 by renowned Vitruvius translator José Ortiz y Sanz, who only published first two books. Ortiz y Sanz borrowed Leoni illustrations, which are very rigorous and reliable. However, he criticized from his notes any elements which, from his philological and archaeological, are unorthodox. He even proposed the design of a new Ionic capital based on his own vitruvian research.
Among buildings clearly influenced in Palladio during Spanish Enlightenment we can point: Colegio de San Bartolomé de Anaya in Salamanca (1760-1779), by architect José de Hermosilla y Sandoval (1785-1776), with its tetrastyle porch with composite columns and reminiscent of Chiericati Palace; Escuelas Pías de Valencia (1767-1771), by Antonio Gilabert (1716-1792), whose plans are partly borrowed from Book IV models.
Palacio de Anaya, Salamanca (1760-1779). Ach. José de Hermosilla y Sandoval (1715-1776).
Juan de Villanueva (1739-1811) traveled to Italy between 1758 and 1764 but his presence in Veneto cannot be documented. Nevertheless Palladian influence in his works can be traced , as he acquired a 1581 edition which he heavily annotated. His works also show some Palladian echoes: Casita de Arriba and Casita de Abajo in El Escorial (1771-1773) collect types and motives from English influence; Casita del Príncipe (1781); Palafox Chapel in Burgo de Osma Cathedral (1770 -1781) where he combines elements from Roman Pantheon with Barbaro Chapel in Maser; Basilica del Caballero de Gracia in Madrid (1770); Botanical Garden (1785-1789) which uses elements from Chiericati Palace; Column Gallery in Ayuntamiento de Madrid (1787-1789); Astronomy Observatory (1790-1808) drawn from Palladian villas, and finally, the first two projects for Natural Sciences Cabinet and Museum (1786-1808) which later became Museo del Prado. In this project, Juan de Villanueva placed a large Greek basilical hall, Serlian and connections like in Convento della Carita.
Casita de Abajo, El escorial (1771-1775). Ground & First Floor; Main Façade. Arch. Juan de Villanueva (1739-1811).
Museo del Prado, Madrid (1786-1808). Plans, elevation and Section. Arq. Juan de Villanueva (1739-1811).
(1) Palladio, Andrea. Los Cuatro Libros de Arquitectura de Andrea Palladio, Vicentino. Traducidos e ilustrados con notas por Don Joseph Francisco Ortiz y Sanz, Presbítero. Imprenta Real. Madrid, 1797. (Enlace al facsímil virtual del Ministerio de Fomento)