viernes, 11 de marzo de 2011

Historical context of Islamic architecture (VIII): Ottoman Dynasty (1299-1922)

As Seljuk Emirates disintegrated and Byzantium went into decline, Ottomans rapidly expanded its territory and moved the capital from Iznik to Bursa and later to Edirne. The conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Sultan Mehmet II printed the necessary impetus for transition from an emerging state to a great empire, a superpower whose borders came to Vienna, including the Balkans to the west and Iran to the east and north Africa from Egypt to Algeria. 

Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent (c. 1683)

The race to surpass the splendor of inherited Byzantine churches, which best example is Hagia Sophia, culminated in the construction of Istanbul great mosques. Most significant of these is Süleymaniye Mosque, conceived in 16th century by famous Ottoman architect Sinan, who is the most significant example of architectural harmony in a dome. Most of great Ottoman mosques were part of large groups of buildings called külliye, composed of several madrasas, a Koranic school, a library, a hospital (Darüşşifa), a hostel (weave), a public kitchen, a caravanserai and several mausoleums. Since the early 18th century, during the so-called Tulip Period, Ottoman architectural and decorative style reflected the influence of French Baroque and Rococo, thus heralding the stage of westernization of Islamic arts and architecture.

Suleymaniye Mosque (1550-1557). Ground Floor Plan.

Suleymaniye Mosque (1550-1557). Longitudinal section.

Suleymaniye Mosque (1550-1557). Transverse Section.

Lecture taught at Notre Dame School of Architecture in South Bend, Indiana (USA), January 26, 2011.
Author: Pablo Álvarez Funes

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